Calories and Timing
Sure, a calorie is calorie regardless of the time of day, but what if food affects our bodies differently at different times?
Will Food in the morning have the same metabolic impact as foods at night?
What about eating throughout the day, or eating smaller meals?
A study in Nutrition and Healthy Aging (PMC6510179) shown that dietary restriction improves lifespan, metabolic fitness, and resilence in many organisms, but the role of dietary macronutrient (Fats, Protein and carbs) composition and timing of food intake.
Basically, their goal was to compare caloric restriction, dietary restriction, and every other day fasting and every day feeding against cellular damage. They studied high fat diets and low fat diets in their susceptibility to renal ischemia reperfusion. (Cellular damage in the blood)
Their results proved regardless of high fat/ low fat diet, time restricted eating correlated with protection, better insulin sensitivity, weight loss, and lower fasted glucose levels. CR reduces the release of growth factors like growth hormone, insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), which have been shown to accelerate aging and increase mortality in many organisms. (PMID: 20395504)
Another study shown a correlation between eating after 8pm, and an increase risk for obesity. However, the question is, how do calories metabolically affect our bodies at night instead of in the morning? (PMID: 21527892)
Or are our food choices different? Do we pick unhealthier foods at night instead of healthier?
The study results conclude that people who ate past 8pm tend to eat more fast food, and ate poor food choices than those who consumed more calories earlier.
Can Time Restricted Eating Reduce Aging and Reduce Cancer Risk?
A study (PMID: 26305095) found that time restricted eating, including eating less in the evening proved to lower cancer risk and inflammatory biomarkers.
Reducing evening energy intake, and fasting for longer nightly intervals may lower systemic inflammation and subsequently reduce breast cancer risk. Randomized trials are needed to validate these associations.
Women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination 2009-2010 Survey. Eating frequency and timing variables were calculated from 24-hour food records and included (1) proportion of calories consumed in the evening (5 pm-midnight), (2) number of eating episodes per day, and (3) nighttime fasting duration. Linear regression models examined each eating frequency and timing exposure variable with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Each 10 percent increase in the proportion of calories consumed in the evening was associated with a 3 percent increase in CRP. Conversely, eating one additional meal or snack per day was associated with an 8 percent reduction in CRP.